Top 10 Most Popular diets

Top 10 Most Popular diets

TOP 10 MOST POPULAR DIETS

TOP 10 MOST POPULAR DIETS
DIETS
There are thousands of diets. Some are for losing weight, while others are for gaining weight, lowering cholesterol, living a long and healthful life, and many other reasons.
A diet is best described as a fixed plan of eating and drinking where the type and amount of food are planned out in order to achieve weight loss or follow a particular lifestyle.
The following diets are covered in this diet review:

1. Ketogenic Diet
2. Atkins Diet
3. Vegan and Vegetarian Diets
4. Mediterranean Diet
5. Paleo Diet
6. Zone Diet
7. Low-FODMAP Diet
8. High Protein Diets
9. DASH Diet
10. Very-low-calorie Diet

 The following diets are covered in this diet review:

Ketogenic diet
  •  Ketogenic diets are low in carbs and high in fat, which puts the body in a state of ketosis. The “keto” diet is all the rage these days, but what exactly is a ketogenic diet? The keto diet is a short-term, low carb and high fat (LCHF) diet that focuses on weight loss. On this diet, your calorie breakdown looks like this: 70-75% fat, 20-25% protein, and 5-10% carbs. Ketosis is a metabolic state that happens when your body doesn’t have enough carbohydrates for your cells to burn for energy. So, instead, it burns fat. The Keto diet is very effective at slimming your waistline but does cause huge changes to your body that aren’t always positive. This diet has risks including ketoacidosis for people with type 1 diabetes, however, and may result in diabetic coma and death. Although most studies are 2 years or less, there is some promising research in relation to diabetes management, metabolic health, weight loss, and body composition change. U.S. News & World Report says that changing the way your body is fueled from carbs to fat can lead to leg cramps, dehydration, brain fog, dizziness and more.
Vegan and Vegetarian Diets
While both vegan and vegetarian diets cut out all animal protein, there is one distinct difference between the two: animal products. Vegetarians can eat anything except meats and seafood, but vegans follow a strictly plant-based diet and avoid any food that comes from an animal. This includes meats, seafood, dairy, eggs, and some vegans omit honey as well.

Although a vegan diet is more difficult to follow than a vegetarian diet, it is becoming increasingly easier to find positively delicious vegan recipes, vegan products in grocery stores, and quality vegan restaurants. Since vegetarian and vegan diets have proven benefits in managing diabetes and reducing heart disease risks, it is great that they are becoming more accessible.

Whether you try one of these two diets for health, environmental impact, religious beliefs, or the treatment of animals, make sure to get a good balance of nutrition and think about taking a supplement with calcium, zinc, and vitamin D and B12.

Paleo Diet
In its purest form, the Paleolithic diet more commonly known as the paleo diet or the “caveman diet” allows only those foods that humans ate when we first roamed the planet, half a million years ago: Fish, lean meats, fruit, nonstarchy veggies, and nuts are in; starchy veggies, dairy foods, grains, and processed foods are out. Because of its straightforward guidelines, focus on nutrient-rich produce, and emphasis on exercise, the paleo diet has earned a loyal following among fans who say it helps them not only lose weight but get and stay healthier. However, experts say the long-term results aren’t proven and the diet is difficult to maintain.

The aim of a paleo diet is to return to a way of eating that’s more like what early humans ate. The diet’s reasoning is that the human body is genetically mismatched to the modern diet that emerged with farming practices an idea known as the discordance hypothesis.

Low FODMAP Diet
A low FODMAP diet that reduces or removes certain foods can help some people avoid abdominal (tummy) pain and discomfort.

FODMAP stands for Fermentable Oligosaccharides; Disaccharides; Monosaccharides; and Polyols. These are the chemical names of several sugars that are poorly absorbed in the small intestine.

The sugars can trigger symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) in some people, such as diarrhea, flatulence (passing wind), abdominal bloating, pain, nausea and constipation. These symptoms can affect people’s lives and make them feel uncomfortable, causing stress and embarrassment.

A low FODMAP diet reduces or removes certain everyday foods that are high in FODMAPs. These include some grains, vegetables, fruits, and dairy products.

Very-low-calorie Diet
The use of very-low-calorie diets (VLCDs) is sometimes considered for weight management in the NHS (National Health Service) and in commercial programs. There is a need for long-term comparison with conventional dietary interventions to assess clinical effectiveness. VLCDs are defined as hypocaloric diets that provide between 450 to 800 kcal per day and are relatively enriched in the protein of high biological value. They must contain the full complement of vitamins, minerals, electrolytes, and fatty acids. They are usually in a liquid formulation and are intended to completely replace another food intake in a weight loss program for a specific period of time. The diet usually involves replacing normal food with low-calorie shakes, soups, bars, or porridge containing milk.VLCDs are typically for adults who are obese defined as having a BMI over 30 but should not be the first option to manage obesity. These diets should only be followed under medical supervision for a maximum of 12 weeks continuously, or intermittently with a low-calorie diet for example, for two to four days a week.

Most people who want to lose weight do not need to follow a very low-calorie diet.

Reference
  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK311324/https://www.amazon.com/DASH-Diet-Mediterranean-Solution-Control/dp/1538715252https://www.health.harvard.edu/diet-and-weight-loss/a-new-diet-to-manage-irritable-bowel-syndrome.https://www.amazon.com/Krauses-Food-Nutrition-Process-Therapy/dp/032334075Xhttps://nutrition.ucdavis.edu/sites/g/files/dgvnsk426/files/…/fact-pro-paleo-diet.pdfhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3916858/
Atkins diet
The Atkins diet, or Atkins nutritional approach, focus on controlling the levels of insulin in the body through a low-carbohydrate diet.

If people consume large amounts of refined carbohydrates, their insulin levels rise and fall rapidly. Rising insulin levels trigger the body to store energy from the food that is consumed, making it less likely that the body will use stored fat as a source of energy.

The theory of Atkins is that through the low-calorie intake, users burn fat stores for energy and therefore see weight loss as a result of this. It is also claimed that advocates will develop steady sugar levels throughout the diet, whereas other dietary methods are high in carbs which can cause fluctuations between blood sugar levels. Through steady fueling throughout the day, Atkin users are also less likely to feel hungry, which is a common vex of many diets.

Dr. Atkins developed this low-carb diet to help people lose a substantial amount of weight and make their bodies healthier. By limiting carbohydrates (glucose), the body will burn fat for fuel instead and will have a more consistent level of energy and blood sugar. The Atkins diet is also helpful in lowering cholesterol, but if you need to drastically alter your cholesterol, you may want to look into the Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes (TLC) Diet that is endorsed by the American Heart Association.

Mediterranean diet
A Mediterranean diet incorporates the traditional healthy living habits of people from countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea, including France, Greece, Italy, and Spain. The Mediterranean diet varies by country and region, so it has a range of definitions. But in general, it’s high in vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, beans, cereals, grains, fish, and unsaturated fats such as olive oil. It usually includes a low intake of meat and dairy foods.

The Mediterranean diet has been linked with good health, including a healthier heart. The Mediterranean Diet is associated with a lower incidence of mortality from all-causes and is also related to a lower incidence of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, certain types of cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases.

Zone Diet
The Zone diet was developed by Barry Sears, Ph.D., and The Zone became a best-selling diet book. The idea behind the Zone diet is that those who follow it will reset their metabolism, warding off heart disease, diabetes, and other chronic health conditions.

Dieters follow a “30-30-40” breakdown to help control insulin levels and hunger, getting 30 percent of their calories from protein, 30 percent from fat, and 40 percent from carbohydrates. Devotees give the Zone diet praise for variety and ease of use, though others warn that the popular diet plan can feel restrictive and is light on certain nutrients.

DASH diet
The healthy DASH diet plan was developed to lower blood pressure without medication in research sponsored by the US National Institutes of Health, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension. The first research showed that DASH could lower blood pressure as well as the first line blood pressure medications, even with a sodium intake of 3300 mg/day! Since then, numerous studies have shown that the DASH diet reduces the risk of many diseases, including some kinds of cancer, stroke, heart disease, heart failure, kidney stones, and diabetes. It has been proven to be an effective way to lose weight and become healthier at the same time. It is full of fabulous, delicious, real foods.

The DASH Diet is rich in fruits, vegetables, fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products, whole grains, fish, poultry, beans, seeds, and nuts. It also contains less sodium; sweets, added sugars, and beverages containing sugar; fats; and red meats than the typical American diet. This heart-healthy way of eating is also lower in saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol and rich in nutrients that are associated with lowering blood pressure—mainly potassium, magnesium, calcium, protein, and fiber.

Diabetes Recommendations

Diabetes Recommendations

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How can nutrition aid diabetes management?

Meta Description: Type 2 Diabetes Can Be Prevented or Delayed with Lifestyle Changes:

According to the Diabetes Prevention Program study: modest weight loss (7% of body weight) + physical activity (30 minutes per day) = 58% reduction in risk for type 2

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, nutrition recommendations, glycemic control, insulin.

Diabetes mellitus is a disease with varying forms and degrees that have the common characteristic of

hyperglycemia. Its underlying metabolic disorder involves all three of the energy-yielding nutrients and

influences energy balance. The most important hormone that controls increased levels of blood glucose is insulin that secrets from the pancreas. people with diabetes have either a lack of insulin or a resistance to its action.

Type 1 and 2 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes affects approximately 5% to 10% of all people with diabetes; It commonly occurs for the first time during childhood, and it is more severe and unstable compared to type 2. The treatment of type 1 diabetes involves regular meals and snacks that are balanced with insulin and exercise. The self-monitoring of blood glucose levels is a critical part of disease management.

Type 2 diabetes occurs mostly among adults, especially those who are overweight. Treatment involves weight reduction and maintenance along with regular exercise. Oral hypoglycemic medications or insulin may be needed.

 Type 2 Diabetes Can Be Prevented or Delayed with Lifestyle Changes:

Modest weight loss (7% of body weight) + physical activity (30 minutes per day) = 58% reduction in risk for type 2

A key point to remember is that preventing or delaying type 2 diabetes requires only small changes in lifestyle. Notice that success doesn’t mean starving yourself to reach an “ideal body weight” or running endless laps. A 7% weight loss is equivalent to losing 14 pounds for someone who weighs 200 pounds. Moderate-intensity physical activity equates to taking a brisk walk for about 30 minutes each day, five days a week.

These goals are small steps toward the bigger reward of good health. As you take these small steps and experience small successes, you will develop more confidence in yourself and your ability to make the changes you need to stay healthy.

 Body Weight in Type 2 Diabetes

Because excessive body fat can worsen insulin resistance, weight loss is recommended for overweight or obese individuals who have diabetes. Even moderate weight loss (5 to 10 percent of body weight) can help to improve insulin resistance, glycemic control, blood lipid levels, and blood pressure. Weight loss is most beneficial early in the course of diabetes before insulin secretion has diminished. Not all persons with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese. Older adults and those in long-term care facilities are often underweight and may need to gain weight. Low body weight increases the risks of morbidity and mortality in these individuals.

Physical Activity and Diabetes Management

Regular physical activity can improve glycemic control considerably and is, therefore, a central feature of disease management. Physical activity also benefits other aspects of health, including cardiovascular risk factors and body weight. Children with diabetes or prediabetes should engage in at least 60 minutes of physical activity each day. Adults with diabetes are advised to perform at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity per week, spread over at least 3 days of the week; they should also perform resistance exercise at least twice weekly unless contraindicated by a medical condition that increases the risk of injury. Both aerobic and resistance exercise can improve insulin sensitivity.

According to the Diabetes Prevention Program study:

Nutrition Recommendations for the Management of Diabetes

Total Carbohydrate Intake The amount of carbohydrate consumed has the greatest influence on blood glucose levels after meals. the more grams of carbohydrate ingested, the greater the glycemic response. The carbohydrate recommendation is based in part on the person’s metabolic needs, the type of insulin or other medications used to manage diabetes, and individual preferences. For optimal health, the carbohydrate sources should be whole grains, legumes, vegetables, fruits, and milk products, whereas foods made with refined grains and added sugars should be limited.

  • Monitoring carbohydrate levels—whether by carbohydrate counting, exchanges or experienced-based estimation—is a key strategy for the achievement of glycemic control.
  • Sucrose-containing foods can be substituted by other carbohydrates in the meal plan. if they added to the meal plan, they must be considered with regard to the dosage of insulin or other glucose-lowering medications. Be careful to avoid excess energy intake.
  • As for the general population, people with diabetes are encouraged to consume a variety of fiber-containing foods to meet dietary recommendations.
  • Sugar alcohols and nonnutritive sweeteners are safe when they are consumed according to the daily intake levels established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
  • Fructose from natural foods such as fruit may result in better glycemic control compared to the isocaloric intake of sucrose or starch. Avoid sugar-sweetened beverages (including those made with high-fructose corn syrup).
Fat
  • The amount of dietary saturated fat, cholesterol, and trans fat recommendations are the same as those for the general population.
  • Increase the selection of foods containing omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA) and omega-3 linolenic acid (ALA).
  • Two or more servings of fish per week (with the exception of commercially fried fish filets) provide omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and are recommended.
  • For people with type 2 diabetes, a Mediterranean-style, monounsaturated fatty acid-rich eating pattern may improve glycemic control and prevent cardiovascular disease risk factors.
  • Individuals with diabetes and dyslipidemia may be able to modestly reduce total and LDL-cholesterol by consuming 1.6 to 3 g/day of plant stanols or sterols typically found in enriched foods.
Protein
  • For individuals with diabetes and normal renal function, the evidence is insufficient to suggest any special recommendations. usual protein intake (i.e., 15% to 20% of energy) should be modified.
  • For individuals with type 2 diabetes, ingested protein can increase the insulin response without increasing plasma glucose concentrations. Therefore, carbohydrate foods that are also high in protein should not be used to prevent or treat acute hypoglycemia.
Sodium
  • For individuals with both diabetes and hypertension, a reduction in dietary sodium should be less than the general public. (≤2300 mg/day is advisable.)
Alcohol Use in Diabetes
  • recommendations for alcohol intake is similar to those for the general population, which recommends that women and men limit their average daily intakes of alcohol to one drink and two drinks per day, respectively.

    • Be aware that alcohol consumption may put people with diabetes at risk of delayed hypoglycemia, especially if taking insulin or insulin secretagogues.
Micronutrient
  • recommendations for people with diabetes are the same as for the general population. Vitamin and mineral supplementation is not recommended unless nutrient deficiencies develop; those at risk include the elderly, pregnant or lactating women, strict vegetarians, and individuals on calorie-restricted diets.
Whole Grains and Fiber
  • Recommendations for whole grain and fiber intakes are similar to those for the general population. People with diabetes are encouraged to include fiber-rich foods such as whole-grain cereals, legumes, fruits, and vegetables in their diet. There are no reasons for these individuals to consume greater amounts of fiber than what is recommended for the general public. Current recommendations are to consume approximately 25 g/day for women and 38 g/day for men.

Stress

Physiologic or psychosocial stress may affect glycemic control in patients with diabetes because of the hormonal responses that are antagonistic to insulin. In particular, diabetes-specific emotional stress is associated with poor HbA1c control in individuals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. People with diabetes, especially those who use insulin, should learn useful stress-reduction exercises and activities as part of their self-care skills and practices. Stress-reducing activities can vary greatly from one person to the next (e.g., meditation, running, yoga, journaling, playing music). Finding the best coping mechanism may require trial and error.

Conclusion

Conclusion

Medical nutrition therapy for people with diabetes should be individualized, with consideration given to the individual’s usual food and eating habits, metabolic profile, treatment goals, and desired outcomes. Monitoring of metabolic parameters, including glucose, HbA1c, lipids, blood pressure, body weight, and renal function, when appropriate, as well as the quality of life, is essential to assess the need for changes in therapy and to ensure successful outcomes.

Pork and pork products

Pork and pork products

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Meta Description: Fresh pork muscle is 70–75% water and the protein content ranges from 18 to 22%.  Lipid or fat is another major constituent of fresh pork. It makes up between 5 and 7% of the muscle tissue The carbohydrate content of meat is negligible, generally less than 1%. Vitamin and mineral content of fresh pork is usually about 1–2%.

Keywords: Pork, pork products, food safety, processed meat, cancer, healthy eating, healthy food

Introduction:

The earliest known records of swine domestication are from China and date to 4900 bc. Christopher Columbus brought the first pigs to the USA via the Canary Islands in 1493. The early colonists of the USA brought livestock with them from England throughout the 1600s. Gradually, as more grain was grown, larger herds of pigs developed and swine production became a true industry.

The advent of mechanical refrigeration led to industry expansion as pork could be processed year-round and kept fresh longer. Development of rail systems and the use of refrigerated rail carriages boosted industry growth as both livestock and meat could be more widely distributed. In the 1800s, pigs were often allowed to roam free in pastures and were fed garbage or what little grain was available. Today, most pigs are raised in large numbers in environmentally controlled buildings with a very specific diet designed to maximize growth.

Fresh pork muscle is 70–75% water and the protein content ranges from 18 to 22%.  Lipid or fat is another major constituent of fresh pork. It makes up between 5 and 7% of the muscle tissue The carbohydrate content of meat is negligible, generally less than 1%. Vitamin and mineral content of fresh pork is usually about 1–2%.

Nutrient Value and Dietary Significance of Pork:

Pork supplies many nutrients essential for maintenance and growth.  As with other meat, pork is an excellent source of protein. A single 85 g serving of pork contributes 41% of the daily protein requirement for a normal adult male. Not only does pork contain a large amount of protein, but this protein is also of good quality.  Pork also contains lipids and fats. About 34% of pork fatty acids are saturated and 66% are unsaturated. Cholesterol is another lipid found in pork. Cholesterol is found in cell membranes in the animal body and is synthesized in the liver of humans and animals. Consumption of animal products, therefore, provides a dietary source of cholesterol which can be used in the body. Cholesterol, like saturated fats, has been associated with an increased risk of developing heart disease. The relationship is not well understood, but the American Heart Association recommends keeping dietary intake of cholesterol to less than 300 mg daily. One 85-g serving of pork provides about 79 mg of cholesterol or about 26% of the recommended 300 mg.

Pork is an excellent food source for several vitamins and minerals. It supplies large amounts of thiamin, vitamin B12, niacin, riboflavin, and zinc. Pork is also a good source of vitamin B6, phosphorus, and iron. Dietary iron can be classified into two types, heme and nonheme. Heme iron, which is the major type found in pork, is absorbed more easily and better utilized by the body. Iron is a component of the molecule hemoglobin, which is the major carrier of oxygen in our bloodstream. Intake of heme iron is especially important in warding off anemia, which may result from a low level of hemoglobin in the blood. Pork, when consumed in moderation, is an excellent source of many important dietary nutrients.

Table 1 Pork storage recommendations

Table 1 Pork storage recommendations1

 

Refrigerator (2-4 ) Freezer (18)
Fresh pork 4 days2 3–6 months3
Cured pork 7 days 2 months

 

  1. Packaging and handling prior to the consumer will greatly impact shelflife of pork.
  1. Ground meat, 2 days.
  2. Ground meat, 1–2 months.
Reference
  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19439460http://www.aicr.org/reduce-your-cancer-risk/diet/red-and-processed-meat.htmlhttps://www.wcrf.org/dietandcancer/recommendations/limit-red-processed-meathttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19826553https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2858627

Microbiological and Other Hazards

Muscle is essentially sterile prior to death. However, meat destined for human consumption is cross-contaminated with microorganisms by equipment and handling at the time of slaughter and processing. Just as pork is an excellent source of nutrients for our bodies, muscle or meat is also an excellent growth medium for microorganisms. Controlling the growth of microorganisms on pork by acidifying, curing, salting, modified-atmosphere packaging, drying, cooking, or refrigerating is essential.

Food poisoning can result from consuming pork that has been mishandled, allowing certain microorganisms to grow. Causative organisms of food poisoning may include Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Clostridium botulinum, C. perfringens, and Campylobacter fetus ssp. jejuni. Food poisoning is quite common and, in its mildest forms, is often mistaken for influenza because the symptoms are very similar. Generally, foodborne illnesses are relatively short-lived and more uncomfortable than harmful. However, food poisoning can be a very serious matter. It can be debilitating or even fatal for those with poor immunological defenses such as infants or the elderly. Like other microorganisms, pathogens which cause food poisoning are well controlled by heat, refrigeration, chemicals, or other means mentioned earlier. However, undercooking, improper cooling or recontamination of cooked food by raw food are common ways that pathogens appear in the food supply.

 

Of particular concern in pork is the parasitic nematode T. spiralis. This organism forms a cyst in porcine

muscle. The organism can be transmitted to humans who consume the contaminated pork but is readily

destroyed by heating the muscle to 62℃. Processing plants that sell pork which is not likely to be cooked again are required to heat or freeze the meat to certify that it is trichina-free.

Pork-slaughtering and processing plants have rigid sanitation programs that allow the production of safe food. Good sanitation at the plant and proper handling throughout the food chain help keep microbial growth under control. Plants producing pork must keep processing temperatures below 10 ℃ or stop production and sanitize the equipment every 8 h. Most plants keep their working temperature low enough to require cleaning and sanitizing only once every 24 h.

Despite all the in-plant efforts to control microorganisms, pork can still be contaminated or growth of microorganisms already present can occur as a result of product abuse in the warehouse, on the delivery truck, in the retail outlet, or in the home. Perishable foods should always be frozen or refrigerated at temperatures below 4 ℃. Once cooked, pork should be kept above 60 ℃ or quickly cooled to under 4 ℃. Many microorganisms grow rapidly in the temperature range of 4–60 ℃. Two very common mishandling problems that occur in the home are failing to refrigerate leftovers promptly and recontaminating cooked product by using the same utensils used with the raw product.

To minimize microbiological hazards and maximize eating quality, the recommendations in Table 1 have been devised as maximum limits for storage of pork. Molds and yeasts are of little concern in fresh pork because the high water activity allows bacteria to dominate. In dried pork items such as pepperoni, molds may grow on the surface. However, mold growth is retarded by a potassium sorbate dip applied by the manufacturer or by vacuum packaging.

 

Very few other hazards exist with the consumption of pork. Muscle from pigs is regularly monitored for drug and pesticide residues by the USDA. Incidences of contaminated meat have been isolated and total far less than 1% of the pork supply.

Conclusion

Conclusion

Potential health hazards of eating pork and pork products

  1. Increased Cancer Risk from Bacon and Other Processed Pork

According to the World Health Organization, processed meat like ham, bacon, and sausage causes cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer actually classifies processed meat as a carcinogen, something that causes cancer. Researchers found that consuming 50 grams of processed meat each day raises your risk of colorectal cancer by a very significant 18 percent.

 

Processed meat is considered to be food items like ham, bacon, sausage, hot dogs and some deli meats. Noticing a theme here? Those are mainly pork-derived food products. How much-processed meat is 50 grams? That’s about four strips of bacon. Maybe you’re thinking that you only eat two pieces of bacon regularly. According to this research, that would likely equate to a 9 percent increase of cancer likelihood.

 

Unfortunately, pork and processed meat are often consumed by folks following the keto diet, as well as the Atkins diet, for example. Instead, they should be using healthier meat like beef, lamb, bison or chicken.

 

  1. Exposure to Hepatitis E. Pork products, particularly liver, frequently carries hepatitis E, which can cause severe complications and even death in vulnerable populations. Thorough cooking is necessary to deactivate the virus.
  2. Liver Cancer and Cirrhosis. Strong epidemiological links exist between pork consumption and liver disease. If these links reflect cause and effect, one culprit might be N-nitroso compounds, which are found abundantly in processed pork products cooked at high temperatures.

 

  1. 4. Exposure to Yersinia. Undercooked pork can transmit Yersinia bacteria, causing short-term illness and raising the risk of reactive arthritis, chronic joint conditions, Graves’ disease, and other complications.

 

Food Cravings

Food Cravings

Do Food Cravings Indicate a Nutritional Deficiency?

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Food craving has been defined as “an intense desire for a particular food (or type of food) that is difficult to resist. In contrast to hunger, which can be reduced by any number of foods, food cravings are typically only alleviated by consumption of a particular type of food.

Keywords: Food Cravings, nutritional deficiency, pica, Salt craving, chocolate craving

When we lack, we intuitively CRAVE. cravings are messages from your body. When you are deficient in something, your body tries to maintain balance by sending signals through cravings. It’s not a choice you make; the survival mechanisms in your subconscious mind trigger these cravings.

Scientific research confirms the link between nutritional deficiencies and cravings. For instance, scientists have found that iron and sodium deficiencies cause cravings. In rare and extreme cases, nutritional deficiencies have led to pica or the craving for non-nutritive substances such as wood, dirt, or soil.

Cravings for unusual substances that demand to be satisfied have been reported in the literature for centuries. This puzzling phenomenon is called pica, which refers to the compulsive consumption of a nonfood substance. It comes from the Latin word for magpie, a bird known for its unusual and indiscriminate eating habits.

Geophagy

Geophagy is defined as the deliberate eating of the earth. It is prevalent mainly among women and children. Geophagy has been associated with iron deficiency or anemia based on cross-sectional studies, but it is not clear if iron deficiency leads to a craving for the earth, or if earth eating impairs iron absorption.

One study showed Geophagy was prevalent and associated with iron deficiency, but iron supplementation had no effects on geophagous behavior. Geophagy could be a copied behavior and the association between geophagy and iron deficiency due to impaired iron absorption following earth eating.

Pagophagia

Pagophagia (eating ice) decreases absorption of nutrients by the gut and is associated with iron deficiency. In a study, women who ingested ice had the highest prevalence of anemia during pregnancy compared to those who ingested soil or starch. Patients who consume freezer frost are also at high risk for ingesting microbial contaminants from meats and other foods in the freezer. Dental complications (e.g., tooth sensitivity, enamel loss, cracked teeth, recurrent decay) have also been reported from pagophagia. Pagophagia often goes unreported because many people do not consider ice consumption to be an abnormal or potentially harmful habit.

Salt craving

Salt is a highly addictive taste. Our brains and bodies are designed to enjoy salt because it’s necessary for survival. Over the course of human history, finding salt was difficult, so craving salt was a survival mechanism.

The American Heart Association recommends that adults consume between 1,500 and 2,400 milligrams (mg) of salt per day. You may crave salt as a symptom of a medical condition that requires treatment. That’s why you should never ignore a sudden craving. Below are some conditions that may cause you to crave salt.

1-Dehydration

Your body needs to maintain a certain level of fluids to function properly. If those levels fall below what’s healthy, you may start craving salt. This is your body’s way of encouraging you to drink or eat more.

2. Addison’s disease

Your adrenal glands are responsible for producing hormones that are vital to your survival. Addison’s disease is a rare disease that can decrease the number of hormones produced by your adrenal glands. People with this disease experience salt cravings, in addition to other symptoms:

  • severe fatigue or lack of energy
  • pale, clammy skin
  • low blood pressure
  • loss of appetite
  • unexplained weight loss
  • long-term or persistent diarrhea
  • dark patches of skin, especially on the face
  • mouth sores on the inside of the cheeks
3. Stress

The adrenal glands are responsible for releasing cortisol. This hormone helps regulate blood pressure and your body’s response to stress. Research suggests that people with higher levels of sodium release lower levels of cortisol during stressful periods. Craving salt could be one way your body is trying to deal with unusual stress.

4. Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)

Several days before you start your period, you may experience a wide range of symptoms. These include mood swings, loss of sleep, and even food cravings. For some women, these cravings can be intense. You may crave salty or sweet foods. Not every woman will experience PMS symptoms.

What are the concerns about canned food?

 

Amylophagia

Amylophagia (eating starch) is also associated with iron deficiency, although some starches contain iron and cause a dramatic increase in blood iron levels. Starch consists of 86 percent carbohydrate. Consuming one pound of starch per day is not uncommon; this amount provides 1,590 calories. The high caloric content of starch can cause excessive weight gain, while simultaneously leading to malnutrition, as starch lacks vitamins and minerals.

Carbohydrate-craving

The carbohydrate-craving syndrome is often defined as a disorder of disturbed appetite and mood, characterized by an almost irresistible desire to consume sweet or starchy foods in response to negative mood states. Carbohydrate ingestion appears to trigger mood improvement in the carbohydrate craver while non-carbohydrate cravers generally report fatigue after carbohydrate ingestion. Accordingly, it is theorized that the carbohydrate craver preferentially selects and ingests carbohydrate-rich foods in an attempt to self-medicate a negative mood. Mood improvement following carbohydrate ingestion is thought to occur via a tryptophan-mediated increase in brain serotonin, potentially alleviating a functional deficiency in brain serotonin and thus serving as self-medication. The self-administration of carbohydrates may be reinforced in carbohydrate cravers by reduction of unpleasant mood states, or possibly by the perception of palatability, a pattern that with repetition may result in overweight and obesity.

Studies suggest a need to assist carbohydrate cravers in identifying alternative ways of alleviating dysphoric mood or discomfort other than high-calorie carbohydrate intake. Such measures might include selecting low-calorie carbohydrate-rich snack foods, increasing physical activity or employing cognitive-behavioral techniques to reduce dysphoric mood.

Chocolate craving

It appears to be widely believed that an important motive for eating chocolate is to improve mood. Consistent with this is evidence from scientific studies showing that the consumption of chocolate does indeed significantly influence mood, generally leading to an increase in pleasant feelings and a reduction in tension, although increased “guilt” may be a penalty for some individuals.

Chocolate cravings, like sweet cravings, have been found to occur premenstrually for many women.

In fact, studies found chocolate to be the only high carbohydrate food that is craved more at the menses than at other times during the menstrual cycle. Because of the relationship of chocolate craving and the perimenstrual, some have suggested a physiological basis for chocolate cravings. The claims for a physiological basis for chocolate cravings take one of two forms. One is that some physiological change occurring premenstrually might induce a need state which some ingredient in chocolate satisfies (e.g. magnesium or serotonin). The second is that some substance in chocolate causes pleasure, either directly (e.g. anandamide, a cannabinoid) or indirectly through neurotransmitter release (e.g. endogenous opioids), which individuals desire more premenstrually.

How to Reduce Stress with Diet?

How to Reduce Stress with Diet?

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A healthy diet can help counter the impact of stress by shoring up the immune system and lowering blood pressure. Few stresses busting food is as follows:

Keywords: Stress, healthy diet

Introduction:

Stress is a common term used by people when they encounter a problem in their life. This problem could be anything from the work environment to the death of a family member. However, when you hear someone mention that they are ‘stressed out’, the likelihood is that this person does not know the full extent of what stress actually is. Stress, in biological terms, refers to the after effects of a person failing to respond properly to an event that has occurred in their life, whether physical or emotional. Imagine a person encountering a problem and bottling up these emotions inside without releasing them. This behavior brings stress upon the body and gets worse with time.

Symptoms of stress

You will know you are suffering from stress when you start to notice changes in your body. These changes/symptoms indicate that you are in the exhaustion stage of stress.

The following are some of the symptoms that you may encounter when you suffer from stress.

Muscle tension

Loss of focus/concentration

Headaches

Increased heart rate

Having a short temper

An edgy personality

Irritations (Rashes, Eczema, etc.)

Loss of appetite

If the stress is not treated, it is possible for further damage to be inflicted on the body, resulting in other worse consequences. Stress can also inflict long term illnesses to the body. Examples of these diseases include

 Diabetes

 Depression

 Mental health problems

 Heart/Cardiovascular problems

 Bowel/Digestive Problems

One of the main issues with stress is that it can cause unhealthy eating habits. This applies mainly to people who are always on the go and lead a busy lifestyle. People that fall into this category often endure large amounts of stress and have no time to fit balanced nutrition around their busy schedule. Additionally, stress makes the body crave foods that are high in fats and sugars. This flaw in eating, in time will inflict greater stress on the body, plus other problems that pose a threat to your physical and mental health.

Whole grains

Whole grains are the rich source of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are used as comfort food because it makes a chemical (serotonin) that comforts a person. Complex carbohydrates take a longer time to get digested and, therefore, keep a person calm for a longer period of time. Complex carbohydrates also stabilizing the blood sugar level.

saffron

saffron hails from the traditional medicine found in Persian cultures. It has served mankind for millennia as both a culinary herb and powerful medicine. Saffron is known for its vibrant color and flavor, and also for being the world’s most expensive spice. Saffron has been traditionally used as a calmative, antidepressant and anti-inflammatory. Studies in humans show there is a benefit to both anxiety and depression. This beautiful herb also imparts the gastrointestinal advantage of relaxing the muscles of the digestive tract to reduce spasms.

Probiotic

Probiotics may be defined as “a viable mono or mixed culture of bacteria which, when applied to animal or man, beneficially affects the host by improving the properties of the indigenous flora. There are numerous reasons for stress and its effect on the body is that it reduces the microflora in the gut and increases the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Probiotics exert their effect by inversely increasing the good bacteria, reducing the bad bacteria, improving barrier function, visceral senility, and gut motility. Probiotic bacteria have the potential to alter brain neurochemistry and treat anxiety and depression-related disorders.

A healthy diet can help counter the impact of stress by shoring up the immune system and lowering blood pressure. Few stresses busting food is as follows:

 

Oranges

Oranges are a rich source of vitamin C stressed body are more prone to free radical formations. Vitamin C helps to keep free radicals in check and repairs the body. Drinking plenty of orange juice will help in the production of dopamine in the body and make the person feel relaxed.

Spinach

Spinach is considered to be a magic cocktail of all the greens. Being a rich source of magnesium (three cups of spinach supply about 40% of daily magnesium), it helps to lower stress level by keeping a person in a calm state and by preventing blood pressure from spiking.

Chocolate

Consuming dark chocolate reduces stress in two ways-its chemical impact and its emotional impact. Chocolate not only plays a role in fighting off free radicals, but it can affect both mind and mood. Chocolate’s serotonin elevating activity helps to modify mood in a positive way. Commonly known as comfort food, research has now promoted the status of chocolate as a psychoactive food.

Coffee

Epidemiological and experimental studies have shown positive effects of regular coffee-drinkers on various aspects of health, such as psychoactive responses (alertness, mood change, etc.).

Caffeine enhances alertness, facilitates thought formation and decreases fatigue. This alkaloid also improves mood, lifts the spirits and enhances both cardiovascular function and respiration. Taken by adults at a dose of 300 mg/day or less, caffeine is safe and beneficial for human health.

Blueberries

Blueberries are full of antioxidants and vitamin C. These nutrients are said to be great stress busters. The antioxidants fight the free radicals which adversely affect the memory. Vitamin C along with antioxidants helps to combat stress hormone cortisol. It is also the fiber present in blueberries which help to relieve stress. Also, the high fiber content keeps sugar level low and, therefore, stress is relieved.

Broccoli

One of the good mood foods is broccoli which has stress-relieving vitamin B6. It also contains folic acid which is important in fighting depression.

Fish

Fish like Mackerel, Salmon, tuna sardines contain omega 3 fatty acids which boost the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter for good mood. It also has stress fighters like B6 and B12. These are important for the optimum functioning of the brain and enhance memory and mood.

Banana

Banana offers serious mood-lifting power, with a combination of Vitamins B6, A and C; fiber, tryptophan, potassium, phosphorus, iron, and protein. The combination of natural sugars and fibers creates long-lasting energy to help in the prevention of blood sugar imbalance. Carbohydrates aid in the absorption of tryptophan in the brain, Vitamin B6 helps in conversion of tryptophan into mood-lifting serotonin and the potassium and iron work towards off fatigue by producing more energy. Iron in bananas exclusively is crucial to producing energy and fighting fatigue.

Walnuts

Walnuts have long been thought of as a ‘brain food’ because of their wrinkled, bi-lobed (brain-like) appearance. They are an excellent source of omega 3 essential fatty acids and uridine. The combination of omega 3 fatty acids and uridine is thought to be a natural antidepressant. Higher blood levels of omega 3 fatty acids have been linked with better mood and lower rates of depression.

Eggs

A hard-boiled egg is easy to make and easy to transport like a snack food product. Full of high-quality protein and omega 3 fatty acids (from the hens eating omega 3 fatty acids rich diet), eggs are also an excellent source of vitamin B12 and a good source of vitamins B2, B5, and vitamin D. One boiled egg also contains more than 20 percent of the daily recommended amount of tryptophan hence considered a good stress-busting food.

Tea

Green tea contains L-theanine a protein which relaxes the brain, thereby reducing stress and anxiety with tranquilizing effects.

Flax seeds

Flaxseeds has a warm, earthy and subtly nutty flavor combined with an abundance of omega 3 fatty acids make it a good choice by vegetarians and good brain food. Flax seeds are the richest source of omega 3 fatty acids in the plant kingdom and are very promising functional food.

Reference
  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15129302https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2805706/https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/A-Comparative-Study-on-Proximate-Composition-%2C-%2C-of-Amin-Thakur/ed403a0e8d62f141dedeaa5226fbe670ee64b9a9https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4643654/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4375225/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4997396/

Conclusion

Meta Description:

Stress is going to happen at some point in a person’s life and will most defiantly happen more than once. However, as unavoidable as stress can sometimes be, it is always a choice. One can either let the body suffer from the effects of stress, or we can choose to do something about it. Thus to keep the body and mind healthy, every individual should know the stress management and nutrition play a key role in stress management.