There are thousands of diets. Some are for losing weight, while others are for gaining weight, lowering cholesterol, living a long and healthful life, and many other reasons.
A diet is best described as a fixed plan of eating and drinking where the type and amount of food are planned out in order to achieve weight loss or follow a particular lifestyle.
The following diets are covered in this diet review:

1. Ketogenic Diet
2. Atkins Diet
3. Vegan and Vegetarian Diets
4. Mediterranean Diet
5. Paleo Diet
6. Zone Diet
7. Low-FODMAP Diet
8. High Protein Diets
9. DASH Diet
10. Very-low-calorie Diet

 The following diets are covered in this diet review:

Ketogenic diet
  •  Ketogenic diets are low in carbs and high in fat, which puts the body in a state of ketosis. The “keto” diet is all the rage these days, but what exactly is a ketogenic diet? The keto diet is a short-term, low carb and high fat (LCHF) diet that focuses on weight loss. On this diet, your calorie breakdown looks like this: 70-75% fat, 20-25% protein, and 5-10% carbs. Ketosis is a metabolic state that happens when your body doesn’t have enough carbohydrates for your cells to burn for energy. So, instead, it burns fat. The Keto diet is very effective at slimming your waistline but does cause huge changes to your body that aren’t always positive. This diet has risks including ketoacidosis for people with type 1 diabetes, however, and may result in diabetic coma and death. Although most studies are 2 years or less, there is some promising research in relation to diabetes management, metabolic health, weight loss, and body composition change. U.S. News & World Report says that changing the way your body is fueled from carbs to fat can lead to leg cramps, dehydration, brain fog, dizziness and more.
Vegan and Vegetarian Diets
While both vegan and vegetarian diets cut out all animal protein, there is one distinct difference between the two: animal products. Vegetarians can eat anything except meats and seafood, but vegans follow a strictly plant-based diet and avoid any food that comes from an animal. This includes meats, seafood, dairy, eggs, and some vegans omit honey as well.

Although a vegan diet is more difficult to follow than a vegetarian diet, it is becoming increasingly easier to find positively delicious vegan recipes, vegan products in grocery stores, and quality vegan restaurants. Since vegetarian and vegan diets have proven benefits in managing diabetes and reducing heart disease risks, it is great that they are becoming more accessible.

Whether you try one of these two diets for health, environmental impact, religious beliefs, or the treatment of animals, make sure to get a good balance of nutrition and think about taking a supplement with calcium, zinc, and vitamin D and B12.

Paleo Diet
In its purest form, the Paleolithic diet more commonly known as the paleo diet or the “caveman diet” allows only those foods that humans ate when we first roamed the planet, half a million years ago: Fish, lean meats, fruit, nonstarchy veggies, and nuts are in; starchy veggies, dairy foods, grains, and processed foods are out. Because of its straightforward guidelines, focus on nutrient-rich produce, and emphasis on exercise, the paleo diet has earned a loyal following among fans who say it helps them not only lose weight but get and stay healthier. However, experts say the long-term results aren’t proven and the diet is difficult to maintain.

The aim of a paleo diet is to return to a way of eating that’s more like what early humans ate. The diet’s reasoning is that the human body is genetically mismatched to the modern diet that emerged with farming practices an idea known as the discordance hypothesis.

A low FODMAP diet that reduces or removes certain foods can help some people avoid abdominal (tummy) pain and discomfort.

FODMAP stands for Fermentable Oligosaccharides; Disaccharides; Monosaccharides; and Polyols. These are the chemical names of several sugars that are poorly absorbed in the small intestine.

The sugars can trigger symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) in some people, such as diarrhea, flatulence (passing wind), abdominal bloating, pain, nausea and constipation. These symptoms can affect people’s lives and make them feel uncomfortable, causing stress and embarrassment.

A low FODMAP diet reduces or removes certain everyday foods that are high in FODMAPs. These include some grains, vegetables, fruits, and dairy products.

Very-low-calorie Diet
The use of very-low-calorie diets (VLCDs) is sometimes considered for weight management in the NHS (National Health Service) and in commercial programs. There is a need for long-term comparison with conventional dietary interventions to assess clinical effectiveness. VLCDs are defined as hypocaloric diets that provide between 450 to 800 kcal per day and are relatively enriched in the protein of high biological value. They must contain the full complement of vitamins, minerals, electrolytes, and fatty acids. They are usually in a liquid formulation and are intended to completely replace another food intake in a weight loss program for a specific period of time. The diet usually involves replacing normal food with low-calorie shakes, soups, bars, or porridge containing milk.VLCDs are typically for adults who are obese defined as having a BMI over 30 but should not be the first option to manage obesity. These diets should only be followed under medical supervision for a maximum of 12 weeks continuously, or intermittently with a low-calorie diet for example, for two to four days a week.

Most people who want to lose weight do not need to follow a very low-calorie diet.

Atkins diet
The Atkins diet, or Atkins nutritional approach, focus on controlling the levels of insulin in the body through a low-carbohydrate diet.

If people consume large amounts of refined carbohydrates, their insulin levels rise and fall rapidly. Rising insulin levels trigger the body to store energy from the food that is consumed, making it less likely that the body will use stored fat as a source of energy.

The theory of Atkins is that through the low-calorie intake, users burn fat stores for energy and therefore see weight loss as a result of this. It is also claimed that advocates will develop steady sugar levels throughout the diet, whereas other dietary methods are high in carbs which can cause fluctuations between blood sugar levels. Through steady fueling throughout the day, Atkin users are also less likely to feel hungry, which is a common vex of many diets.

Dr. Atkins developed this low-carb diet to help people lose a substantial amount of weight and make their bodies healthier. By limiting carbohydrates (glucose), the body will burn fat for fuel instead and will have a more consistent level of energy and blood sugar. The Atkins diet is also helpful in lowering cholesterol, but if you need to drastically alter your cholesterol, you may want to look into the Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes (TLC) Diet that is endorsed by the American Heart Association.

Mediterranean diet
A Mediterranean diet incorporates the traditional healthy living habits of people from countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea, including France, Greece, Italy, and Spain. The Mediterranean diet varies by country and region, so it has a range of definitions. But in general, it’s high in vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, beans, cereals, grains, fish, and unsaturated fats such as olive oil. It usually includes a low intake of meat and dairy foods.

The Mediterranean diet has been linked with good health, including a healthier heart. The Mediterranean Diet is associated with a lower incidence of mortality from all-causes and is also related to a lower incidence of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, certain types of cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases.

Zone Diet
The Zone diet was developed by Barry Sears, Ph.D., and The Zone became a best-selling diet book. The idea behind the Zone diet is that those who follow it will reset their metabolism, warding off heart disease, diabetes, and other chronic health conditions.

Dieters follow a “30-30-40” breakdown to help control insulin levels and hunger, getting 30 percent of their calories from protein, 30 percent from fat, and 40 percent from carbohydrates. Devotees give the Zone diet praise for variety and ease of use, though others warn that the popular diet plan can feel restrictive and is light on certain nutrients.

DASH diet
The healthy DASH diet plan was developed to lower blood pressure without medication in research sponsored by the US National Institutes of Health, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension. The first research showed that DASH could lower blood pressure as well as the first line blood pressure medications, even with a sodium intake of 3300 mg/day! Since then, numerous studies have shown that the DASH diet reduces the risk of many diseases, including some kinds of cancer, stroke, heart disease, heart failure, kidney stones, and diabetes. It has been proven to be an effective way to lose weight and become healthier at the same time. It is full of fabulous, delicious, real foods.

The DASH Diet is rich in fruits, vegetables, fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products, whole grains, fish, poultry, beans, seeds, and nuts. It also contains less sodium; sweets, added sugars, and beverages containing sugar; fats; and red meats than the typical American diet. This heart-healthy way of eating is also lower in saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol and rich in nutrients that are associated with lowering blood pressure—mainly potassium, magnesium, calcium, protein, and fiber.